The Science of Yeast


Making Bread #1



  • Large mixing bowl
  • Hand mixer
  • Wooden spoon
  • Bread knife
  • Bread pan
  • Wire rack
  • Ingredients for “White Bread” Recipe – see bottom of page

1. Using the recipe below, prepare two loaves of white bread – one with the 1-1/2 teaspoons of salt added, the other without the salt.
2. Continue to follow recipe directions.
3. Let bread cool before slicing.
4. Compare the texture and flavor of each loaf.

1. Which loaf of bread tasted better, and why?
2. Which loaf of bread had better volume and texture, and why?
3. Were there any other differences between the two loaves of bread?

Recipe: White Bread

Oven 400°F
Makes 1 loaf.


  • Bread flour:  3-1/2 to 4 cups
  • Active Dry Yeast:  1 packet (1/4 oz., or 2-1/4 tsp)
  • Sugar: 2 tablespoons
  • Salt: 1-1/2 teaspoons
  • Water: 1/2 cup
  • Milk: 1/2 cup
  • Vegetable oil: 2 tablespoons

Preparing Dough
In mixing bowl, combine 1-1/4 cups flour, yeast, sugar and salt; mix well. Add very warm water and milk (120°-130°F) and oil to flour mixture. Blend at low speed until moistened; beat 3 minutes at medium speed. By hand, gradually stir in enough remaining flour to make a firm dough. Knead on floured surface until smooth and elastic, 5 to 8 minutes. Place in greased bowl, turning to grease top. Cover; let rise in warm place until doubled in size.

Shaping and Baking
Punch down dough. On lightly floured surface, roll or pat to a 14- x 7-inch rectangle. Starting with shorter side, roll up tightly, pressing dough into roll with each turn. Pinch edges and ends to seal. Place in greased 9- x 5-inch or 8- x 4-inch bread pan. Cover; let rise in a warm place until doubled in size. Bake in a preheated 400°F oven for 35 to 40 minutes or until golden brown. Remove from pan and place on wire rack to cool.